Laredo COVID-19 Vaccine Tracker

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Use this tracker to follow COVID-19 vaccine distribution progress in Texas and nationwide.

How much of Texas' population has been vaccinated?

The FDA has approved coronavirus vaccines for people 16 years and older. Population totals below include people of that age group. Because the approved vaccines require two doses, people who have received only one dose are considered partially vaccinated.

Each drug company has an independent data and safety monitoring board that reviews the Phase 3 clinical trial data. Once companies complete trials, they will submit the data to the Food and Drug Administration. The agency’s Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee will meet publicly to discuss the data. The FDA’s career scientists will review the data and decide whether to grant the vaccine emergency use authorization.

Phase 1 trials are done in a small number of people to test for safety and dosing. Phase 2 trials are done in hundreds of people to further test for safety. Phase 3 trials typically include tens of thousands of people and are the final stage of testing before a vaccine can be submitted for review by the FDA.

How do vaccines work?

The Pfizer and Moderna vaccines are made with messenger RNA (mRNA) technology, which has been tested but never before licensed for a vaccine in the U.S. Instead of putting a weakened or inactivated germ into our bodies to trigger an immune response, mRNA vaccines teach our cells how to make a protein that triggers the production of antibodies, which then protect us from getting infected if the real virus enters our bodies. Here’s how it works.

diagram of coronavirus showing location of spike proteins and RNA

Scientists looked at the entire genetic sequence of the coronavirus and isolated the genetic instruction, or RNA, for making the “spike” protein, one of many proteins on the outside membrane of the virus. The spike protein resembles a crown and gives the coronavirus its name.

More vaccine resources

About the data

Vaccine development data: The vaccines included above are ones that are available or will likely become available to people in the U.S. These vaccines either have research funded by Operation Warp Speed or have sought authorization from the FDA. Information about vaccines is gathered from government agencies, news reports and the companies that produce the vaccines. Information on how vaccines work comes from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Pfizer.

Vaccine administration data: Data regarding the number of vaccines administered and distributed come from the CDC. U.S. totals include vaccination numbers from states, territories, federal agencies, Micronesia, Palau and the Marshall Islands. CDC data includes vaccinations distributed to island nations and territories since Dec. 13. All other CDC information covers doses given or distributed since Dec. 14. State totals, however, do not include vaccinations shipped to or administered by federal agencies in those states.

Population data: State and U.S. population numbers are based on data provided by the CDC. County-level population estimates use 2019 5-year estimates from the American Community Survey. On Jan. 22, we began using the total estimated population instead of the estimated population of people 16 and older.

Credits

Web production

J.R. Gonzales • john.gonzales@chron.com  • @JR_of_Houston

Jordan Ray • jordan.ray@chron.com  • @JordanLRay

Louis San Miguel • lsanmiguel@lmtonline.com  • @louis_sm

Reporting

Derek Turner • derek.turner@hearstmediact.com  • @DTurnerMedia

Lidia Ryan • lryan@scni.com

Catherine Ho • cho@sfchronicle.com  • @Cat_Ho

Design and development

Eric Blom • eric.blom@sfchronicle.com  • @ejblom

Paula Friedrich • paula.friedrich@sfchronicle.com  • @pauliebe

Todd Trumbull • ttrumbull@sfchronicle.com

Illustration by Getty Images